Working Annotated Bibliography

Namkoong, Kang, Timothy K. F. Fung, and Dietram A. Scheufele. “The Politics Of Emotion: News Media Attention, Emotional Responses, And Participation During The 2004 U.S. Presidential Election.” Mass Communication & Society 15.1 (2012): 25-45. Communication & Mass Media Complete.This study examines the mediating role of emotions toward presidential candidates in the relationship between news media attention and political campaign participation. Numerous studies have investigated the effect of news media attention on political participatory behavior.This article provides background to previous media affected the way people viewed presidential candidates.

Hess, Aaron. “Democracy Through The Polarized Lens Of The Camcorder: Argumentation And Vernacular Spectacle On Youtube In The 2008 Election.” Argumentation & Advocacy 47.2 (2010): 106-122. Academic Search Premier.This article is about YouTube and how it was used to create arguments against John McCain. The author argues that videos create  a visual argument based on mainstream belief and  market based logics. This article supports my thesis that social media influences the way people view the elections and through this medium massive amounts of people may create arguments and have others be affected by these beliefs.

“However, in an era of increasing use of participatory digital media, such as social networking sites, the role of image events and spectator politics remains unclear. Social media, while they are corporate-owned and not protected locations of free speech (Hess, 2009), provide far more opportunity for individual citizens to engage in vernacular politicking (Howard, 2008). And, in the modern election, the use of such digital media has become the norm.”

Houston, J. Brian, et al. “Tweeting During Presidential Debates: Effect On Candidate Evaluations And Debate Attitudes.” Argumentation & Advocacy 49.4 (2013): 301-311. Academic Search Premier.

“In fact, analysis by the Pew Research Center (2013) has found that Twitter conversation tends to be more liberal than public opinion in generéd and thus was likely more positive toward Barack Obama during the debate…”

“As a process or activity, live-tweeting an event may be similar to discussing politics with others, which has been found to be an important predictor of political attitudes, knowledge, and behavior (e.g.. Beck, 2002; Ikeda & Boase, 2011; Scheufele, 2000).”

“The fact that participants who tweeted while watching debates reported paying closer attention to the debates provide evidence that live-tweeting political event may result in more central processing of the events…”

“Live-tweeting a debate was not related to enjoying the debate more. Overall, our results indicate that live-tweeting a televised political event can result in different effects than occur as a result of watching an event without tweeting.”

McKinney, Mitchell S., J. Brian Houston, and Joshua Hawthorne. “Social Watching A 2012 Republican Presidential Primary Debate.” American Behavioral Scientist 58.4 (2014): 556-573. Academic Search Premier.This article examines Twitter usage in the 2012 elections and evaluates “watching behavior” of young citizens during the first Republican televised debate. This article contains information about how people reacted to televised political events and how other people may be affected by other peoples tweets. there is an influence on how people may view candidates based on this social media site.

“Live-tweeting a debate was not related to enjoying the debate more. Overall, our results indicate that live-tweeting a televised political event can result in different effects than occur as a result of watching an event without tweeting.”

“Twitter had already become a common way for media and political organizations to engage citizens as active participants in campaign debate dialogue. On July 20, 2011, six of the  Republican presidential candidates (including @newtgingrich, @TeamBachmann, @THEHermanCain, @RickSantorum, @GovGaryJohnson, and @ThadMcCotter) participated in the first-ever online presidential debate on Twitter…”

Carlisle, Juliet E., and Robert C. Patton. “Is Social Media Changing How We Understand Political Engagement? An Analysis Of Facebook And The 2008 Presidential Election.” Political Research Quarterly 66.4 (2013): 883-895. Academic Search Premier. This article examines the political activity on facebook in the 2008 elections. The article argues that people were more involved in the elections based on the activity they had on facebook. This article supports my idea that people have more access to information and social media allows for people to not only view political information but make their own evaluations based on this information.

“Political communication scholars suggest that the contemporary, new era lowers the cost of accessibility to political information thereby making it more likely that people are willing and able to invest themselves politically.”

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